Goa is one of the smallest state in India located in the south western part of India. Its bordered by Karnataka to the east & south & Maharashtra on the north & Arabian sea to the west. Formerly a Portuguese province for over 450 yrs, Goa was annexed by India in 1961. The history of Goa dates back to 20,000 - 30,000 yes. Detailed history can be read here in wikipedia.
Goa is the richest state as per the GDP per capita. Tourism is the major industry with accounting to more than 12% of the foreign tourist to India. Mining is the second major industry with Iron ore as the major export. Rice, areca, Cashew & coconut are the main agricultural crop.